Coffee is roasted coffee beans, a drink prepared from the berries of certain coffee species. When coffee berries change from green to bright red – indicating ripening – they are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds (called “beans”) are roasted to varying degrees depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with almost boiling water to make a drink known as coffee.

Coffee is dark-colored, bitter, slightly acidic, and has a stimulating effect in humans, the main reason being its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world and can be prepared and presented in various ways. It is usually served hot, although cold or iced coffee is common. Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, or cream are often used to reduce bitter taste.

Clinical research indicates that moderate coffee consumption as a stimulant in healthy adults is benign or mildly beneficial, with the continued research on whether prolonged intake reduces the risk of certain diseases, However, some of the long-term studies are of questionable reliability.

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